Social Psychology Videos: Social Dilemmas

you [Music] what is the social dilemma is the word dilemma suggests it describes a difficult decision one in which our own immediate interest clash with the collective long-term interest once you start looking for them you find social dilemmas almost everywhere social dilemmas occur in romantic relationships when one partner faces the decision to take down the garbage or not the immediate individuals interest says no the collective long-term interest says yes in team sport like football each player faces the temptation of only focusing on the individual performance and ignore the team’s interest another example is corruption imagine a traffic offender who gets stopped by the police for speeding instead of paying for the speeding ticket the offender offers the police officer a bribe taking the bribe is in the short-term interest of the police officer but it comes to cost for the society social dilemmas even offer on the global level think of the negotiations around co2 emissions each country individually would be better off by letting its economy run free and pollute the environment but collectively these emissions threaten our country’s social elements are almost everywhere and following them is as you challenge one of the first scientific contributions to the topic was in 1968 but then Garrett Harding published an article called the tragedy of the Commons imagine the following situation for Fisher’s families live on a lake if each family fish is a maximum of 100 fishes per year the fish stock will replenish all families knows this limitation however what typically happens if each family is free to decide how many fish to catch is that all or most of them take more than 100 they are entitled to the tragedy of the Commons in a nutshell if a group of people faces a for-sure dilemma and can decide freely they will AB selfishly we typically take more than our fair share and contribute less than the required minimum hiding through a crime image about our human nature luckily there are other suggestions how to solve social dilemmas probably the most important one our institutional arrangement and institutional arrangements describe all sort of regulations agreement and Punishment system that help to solve social dilemmas the couple might have an agreement about sharing the household tasks something like bring up the garbage and you clean the dishes sports team typically have coaches who determine the tactics of the team to avoid every player trying to score as many goals as possible in order to avoid bribes payment flow and control mechanism are in place and on the global level organization like the UN try to restrict each country’s co2 emissions these institutional arrangements help to solve social dilemmas but they are not silver bullet there are always some people who cooperate while others don’t why is it that some people adhere to the rules while others try to bend them fresh a psychological research all across the world and especially in our lab at the zoo had tried answering this question let us have a look at the three most important insights gained so far first there are personal differences people differ in the level of cooperation they show in social dilemmas this personality difference is called social value orientation two main categories of social value orientations exist on one side pressure care to a great extent about the outcomes for others on the other side prot cells are people who are primarily interested in their own outcomes pro-social tend to cooperate more and for self less in social dilemmas the second important insight is trust if you trust that the people involved in the social dilemma will cooperate you are more likely to cooperate yourself in a recent review on the subject profile and I showed that in order for us to image and sustain one person has to experience that trusting others pays off often people are overly suspicious about others and their willingness to cooperate but experiencing that others cooperate can make the distrustful Trust for the third important insight is the role of norms norms describe what people consider to be the normal thing to do in specific situation norms are especially important for social dilemmas that if of large number of people if a police officer considers accepting a bribe a normal practice chances are he or she will accept a bribe Neels copies and colleague from the vu show that when people face a social dilemma of corruption this is exactly what happens people are corrupt because they think everybody else is doing it while some important insights have been gained some crucial questions still remain unsolved how can we change these norms what undermines the trust and when thinking about the global social dilemmas like global warming how can we reach global agreement that restrict each country’s individuals interests for the collective good each of us can contribute to the solving social dilemmas knowing about social dilemmas already helps to recognize that there might be negative consequences of our own selfish behavior consequences that don’t appear right away but that will affect us in other people on the list