Rose Anatomy: Head to Toe


Hey, it’s Jason here from Fraser Valley Rose Farm this video I’m going to make today is on your roses from head to toe. What I wanted to do is take you through a Top-to-bottom description of your roses to describe the botanical parts and the parts that I use in order to do my propagation. So Hang tight and I’ll start with the flowers All right I’m going to start with the flowers because I know it’s the It’s the showy part of the rose and most people won’t stick around to the end of the video for the less exciting parts of the rose. So for the flowers, I want to start by showing you the difference between Solitary flowering rose and a cluster flower Rose. This one here flowers solitary that’s what you’re used to seeing in a florists bunch is a rose that’s just on its own with no other roses on the stem By contrast I’ll show you this one here You can see this is cluster flowering So on the same stem here, you have the central bloom but you also have all these other blooms coming so it doesn’t bloom as a single it blooms as a flush of flowers The next thing I want to show you Is to do with petal count Now your wild roses (and this is not a wild rose, this is bred) but your wild roses have one, two, three, four… five petals, that’s what they call a single rose Now the classifications have gone up from there what they actually have is somebody whose job is to tear apart roses and count The number of petals in there so they go from single like this Up to this one here is probably what they would describe as semi-double and has more than five but probably less than ten petals on it the next classification after that is double and I wonder I Wonder if this one is double if that’s not double Which double takes you up to about 25 petals then it’s probably Full which takes you through from 26 to 40 petals and then there’s ones that have a lot more petals than that I don’t have them in bloom in my garden right now but earlier in the season a lot of the old garden roses from Europe, the Centifolias and the Really heavy flowering ones have tons and tons of petals in that and they go past full they call it very full (Imaginatively) so that’s the the petal count conversation Next thing I’ll talk about really quickly here. And again, I don’t have all the examples here, but they do classify by shape of bloom So this one here is a shape that they would call Globular, you can see kind of why it’s kind of the shape of a globe that’s rounded other ones. They might describe more as cupped and Then other ones still they might describe as open or quartered or other examples like that I’m not going to give you them all here But just to give you an idea that they do classify Rose blooms By their shape and that’s something that you can use in a discussion of roses The next one I’m going to talk about is color and Just really quickly here the natural color of roses in the wild tends towards white Pink and yellow and Later on breeders came in and they bred in all sorts of different variations in the color. So lots of Pink’s lots of Purple’s, yellows, White’s nicer mixing those together and What they ended up with is just a wide range of colors All the way through the spectrum the one color that does not exist naturally in a rose So if you see this being sold on the internet as a blue rose It’s either something that is transgenic or it’s something that they’ve photoshopped or doesn’t exist there are colors that they try to sell as blue that are more mauve or a Light purple or that kind of thing, but true blue doesn’t exist in roses another one that unqualifiedly does not exist in roses is those ones you see sold on on the internet that look like rainbows that That kind of pattern doesn’t exist in roses and the blue doesn’t exist in roses So probably what they’ve done there is either they photoshopped it or they’ve taken a white rose They’ve cut the bottom of the stem and stuck it into dye and they’ve made those colors come through the Rose so that’s your natural variations of color and roses and While we’re here talking about the roses. I thought I would take you On the flower here to show you a couple of other parts So what we’re accustomed to talking about on the Rose is the petals here, but there’s other parts that you should know about So right behind the petals here this part here is called the sepals and Sometimes in bud those can be quite ornamental With these kind of fringes on the end of the sepal Okay, so I noticed in editing that my part of the flower that was talking about the internal parts of the flower Was a little out of focus. So I’m hoping to do a little bit better with this take here And what I’ll show you is that I’ve removed the petals on this flower here this outside ring of yellow there That’s called the stamen of the flower And that’s the male part of the flower holds the pollen and the part in the center there the more reddish Center of the flower is the female part where the pollen gets Deposited by bees after they’ve visited the flower. So if you’ve transferred the pollen from Hopefully a different flower than this one on to the stigma Then what will happen is the seeds will begin to develop and they do so inside of the area right behind The flower that that area there begins to swell and so what I’ll show you next is The the hips of the flowers as they’ve developed after being pollinated Okay, moving right along to the hips which is what the roses do to after they flower You can see that the the hips have the same kind of Variation in bloom form as the flowers and these two both flower and clusters and then directly after that Turned into the heads or the hips. You can see here that the fruit of the rose Still has the sepals on it still has biologically all the same parts, but now The fertilized seed inside of it has developed this one here. You can tell by the color is orange now is actually Ripened so what’s inside of it? Should be actual seeds And you can see there that they have turned into seeds now so that’s the role of the hip in your garden when two things that it’s useful for for you is that It can be quite ornamental and also that it creates those Seeds so that the next generation of roses can be bred In addition to that the hips provide good food for wildlife so birds and small animals Nibble at the hips the fleshy part is is just like Fruity and mushy and and people can so even people sometimes turn that into jams or or preserves High in vitamin C. But as I say for ornamental purposes that’s kind of neat to look at and you can get actually some other cool shapes like this one here is the urn shaped hip of Rosa moyesii and This one here is the chestnut shaped or textured hip of Rosa roxburghii so that’s kind of neat and next I’m going to move on and tell you about the stem as of your roses and that’s important to us because I use the stems for propagation Okay, it would be weird to say that stems are my favorite part of the rose But they’re certainly the part of the Rose that I know the best and I work with the closest in propagating roses So I want to show you the difference first of all between Soft wood semi hardwood and hardwood you can see that this is the brand-new growth of a rose and how purple it is That’s pretty characteristic of the roses. They send up this soft supple. Here’s something cool. I could take this I Could bend it. Like I probably even tie it in a knot that Is soft wood now, I don’t do soft wood Rose propagation but if I did Take cuttings off of a softwood part of the Rose you’d see just By how lush that is just by how green and and soft it is and what it is that it would be Very easy to dry this piece out. And so you really have to be careful if you’re trying to propagate with softwood I don’t even try it. The one I go with here is called Semi hard one you can see this one here has matured a little bit more and by the time you get back here It’s still soft Trying to get here It’s starting to get to the point that if I bent it too far It might snap. That’s a great softwood section for taking… Sorry semi semi hardwood section for taking cuttings and cut above a node and cut below a note and I’ll go over that in just a second, but that Is a semi hardwood section and with nobody from pausing a little bit here if you go way further down on the stem you’re gonna find the hardwood portion and Hardwood is so firm that I can’t really bend it without it buckling or cracking or or Breaking or snapping on me. So that’s that’s hardwood and I do hardwood cuttings and I do semi hardwood cuttings This isn’t my cutting video, but that’s an important part to me so the next thing I want to show you on the stem here, is that every place where a leaf emerges from the stem that Is called a node And I got one… And I’ve got two… three… four and Five nodes here one near the top one near the bottom every place that one of those leaves comes out and I’ll go through the leaves in just a minute here is also a place where The rose can regenerate that’s where it has its buds That’s where it would initiate the growth for either a flower or for a new shoot So that’s what the what the buds look like Okay This is something very basic. So I apologize if I’m if I’m talking down. I really don’t mean to but this is a leaf This here This is not a leaf, that is a leaflet Only if it attaches to the stem the whole thing. That is the leaf. Each of these is just a part of the leaf So when people say pull off a leaf and try to propagate with the part below the leaf They’re not talking about this little midrib on the leaf. They’re not talking. They’re talking about the stem This here is a full leaf. And that part there is just a leaflet. The leaves can come in A bunch of different shapes and sizes like this one here. Now as for color, this one is sort of a grayish Almost purplish looking leaf, that’s from Rosa glauca. So it can have a different look to it You can also notice that it has a different Leaf count so this one here has two four six seven leaflets on the leaf other ones on On this one here for instance this one has seven some of them have five And even closer up to the two the blooming end of the rose. They can have only three leaves on Modern hybrid roses other ones like this one here Have nine So that’s two four six eight nine that has nothing to do with that stage of growth That’s just that this is a different species of rose you can see its distinctive and it has smaller leaves and toothed leaves that’s from a Scots rose so different roses have different leaf counts now when they talk about doing pruning on roses and deadheading on roses oftentimes they’ll refer to prune back to the next leaf set that has five on it. Obviously this one has nine to begin with so you’d want to go down to In fact, you wouldn’t deadhead of Scots rose. So they’re really talking about those hybrid roses and on those you Pull back down to a five leaf leave set Now the goal of deadheading is when I talked about the benefits of having those rose hips in your garden Well, that’s the benefits the the downside of having rose hips in your garden Is that when the rose starts putting energy into growing rose hips What it isn’t doing is putting energy into blooming again. So if you Want to deadhead your rose choose count back down to the part where the Rose is still Vegetatively growing and you can tell that by having a leaf set that has five leaflets on it and cutting at the node above that Okay, following the stems down the plant I’m going to take you to the part called the bud Union now that could also be considered the crown of the plant And that’s where all of these Stems reach and make this this sort of swollen area Right, where the plant Reaches the ground and where it all emerges now actually when I say it means it’s the ground it actually could be a little above That some people plant there bud union a little bit higher and some people plant them a little bit lower But it is the swollen part of the plant. That’s right, where all of these stems come from the base of the plant and so above it is stem and Below it is root. So that’s that’s the point of that part now There’s a couple things that are useful about this or interesting to know and important to know one of them is that if you have a grafted plant one that is Different on the top end than it is in the bottom. And so they’ve grafted that and that applies to the vast majority particularly at bare-root roses that you buy is that Genetically above that area it’s one type of plant and below that the ground and the in the root area. It’s a different plant So if you see a big shoot coming from below the bud Union and it looks a lot different Than the growth that you already have above the ground that there is probably a rootstock sucker and should be eliminated So I did a video on that a while back But that’s one thing that’s important to know about the bud union The other one is that it is the point at which your plant… where you would know that the plant is alive or dead So if a plant dies back to here your plant is not dead If it dies back to here down to the bud union and that turns black and diseased your plant is gone Right, so it’s the bud union that determines whether your plant is alive or dead Okay, my final topic here is about the roots now I can’t overemphasize how important the roots are to the health of your plant most of the time when I look at a plant in a greenhouse and I Want to determine how healthy it is. First thing I do is take it out of its pot Tip it out and I look at the roots. And on this one. This is a new newly rooted cutting You can see nice white roots lots of growth there. It’s almost filling the pot. It’s well on its way So what I’m taking cuttings and I mentioned before I take cuttings both semi-hard wooden hardwood the first thing I do is I start trying to induce the formation of Callus now if you get in real close here You can see that the bottom end of this cutting here is starting to develop the sort of white I’m gonna call it scar tissue for for lack of a better term and That’s what callus is. It’s the part that then will develop into the roots of your plants so feel free to look through some of my other videos for a full description on how to do cuttings on roses, but Anyway, that should be the end of my description of roses for today head to toe If you have any questions, please leave them in the comments below