# Is The Universe Finite?

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PBS Digital Studios. Space is big. You just won’t believe how vastly, hugely,

mind-bogglingly big it is. Although according to a new paper, it may

literally be infinitely smaller than we previously thought. Every time you walk out the door, light from

the Big Bang strikes your face, enters your eyes. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation

– the left-over heat-glow from the very early universe. We can’t see this microwave light with our

eyes, but we can catch it with even a simple radio antenna. As soon as we became aware of its existence

we’ve been feverishly building better and better devices to collect it. Why? Because it encodes so many secrets. And within this light, a group of scientists

have just found evidence of the limits of space. A clue that our universe may be actually be

finite in size. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll delve

into the Nature Astronomy paper that just reported this: Planck evidence for a closed

Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology by Eleonora Di Valentino, Alessandro Melchiorri,

and Joe Silk. This is the map of the cosmic microwave background

– the CMB – made by the Planck satellite. We explored in a previous episode how that

speckled pattern is the frozen imprint of sound waves that reverberated through the

first few hundred thousand years after the big bang, only to be frozen in place as the

universe cooled. Analysis of the sizes of these speckles from

previous satellites, and the initial analysis from the Planck map, pointed to a universe that

is infinitely large and geometrically flat, and is dominated by the influences of dark

matter and a constant density of dark energy. For the most part this has agreed with our

observations of the modern universe. But more detailed study of the Planck data

has started to reveal tensions. We’ve talked about this so-called crisis

in cosmology – the Planck team calculate an expansion rate for the universe that does

not match the expansion rate observed today – particularly the modern expansion rate determined

from supernova measurements. And that’s even accounting for accelerating effect of

a constant dark energy. Despite this tension, the teams agree

on lots of things, including fact that the universe is, as close as we can tell, geometrically flat and infinite. But, I’ll come back to what exactly what I mean by that. But even this agreement seems to be fading. In the new study, astrophysicists claim to

have found clear evidence in the Planck data that the universe is NOT flat, but rather

curved inward on itself. If they’re right, the universe is not infinite

in extent. Before we get to the new study, let’s do

a super-quick review of geometry. Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity

allows for three simple geometries for our universe. We have 1) a universe with positive curvature. The 2-D analogy for this is the surface of

a sphere, so a our 3-D space would be like the surface of a 4-dimensional sphere – also

known as a hypersphere. Just like with the 2-D spherical analog, lines

that start parallel in such a universe eventually come together. Such a universe has a finite volume, just

as a sphere has a finite surface area. If you travel far enough around you’ll get

back to where you started. Then there’s 2) the negatively curved universe,

analogous to a hyperbolic plane – an infinite saddle shape. All paths through space diverge from each

other. Such a universe is open – space goes on forever. And finally 3) the universe with zero curvature

– a geometrically flat universe. Parallel lines stay parallel, your high school

geometry still works, and again, space in such a universe goes on forever. The geometry of the universe is determined

by two things: 1) the mass and energy it contains. More stuff in the universe – a higher energy

density – means more gravity, which tends to pull a universe in on itself – it gives

positive curvature and closes the universe – making it finite. And 2) the rate of expansion. Rapid expansion tends to give negative curvature

and open the universe – make it infinite. The combination of these factors determine

the geometry. Like I said, previous studies were pointing

to a flat universe. For example, by looking at the geometry of

gigantic triangles defined by the largest of the speckles in the CMB. The curvature measured was consistent with

being zero – flat – but there’s always a degree of uncertainty due to the imperfect

nature of any measurement. The curvature COULD have been very slightly

positive or very slightly negative – just as the surface of the Earth appears flat if

you’re standing on the ground. It’s only when you get some elevation that

you see the curvature. But it turns out that evidence of very slight

curvature may have been hiding in the Planck data all along. The new study went much deeper into the Planck

data than just looking at triangles defined by the biggest blobs. The team analyzed ALL of the blobs. More accurately, they analyzed what we call

the power spectrum. That’s just the graph showing the distribution

of the different sizes of blobs in the CMB. Blob size is on the x-axis and number of blobs

of that size on the y. So we can see that we get a lot more blobs

at some sizes compared to others – with most blobs at around 1 degree on the sky. We talked about the power spectrum in enormous

detail in that earlier episode. One thing that we didn’t talk about is how

gravitational lensing influences the overall shape of the power spectrum. See, the light from the CMB doesn’t travel

straight to us. It passes through a universe full of galaxies

and galaxy clusters – all of which have enormous gravitational fields that act as lenses, slightly

deflecting the path of those rays of CMB light. The result is like looking at the universe

through a lumpy pane of glass. Everything is very slightly distorted. In the case of the CMB, this results in a

sort of smoothing or blurring out of the power spectrum- the peaks are less sharp than they

would be otherwise. Our brave scientists were able to determine

the amount of lensing present in the Planck CMB map – and they found way more than would

be expected for an open universe. See, gravitational lensing is caused by mass

– both dark matter and atoms. More lensing suggests the universe has a higher

energy density than previously thought. Remember that more energy density tends to

introduce positive curvature. The new study claims there’s enough extra

matter revealed by that lensing to actually close the universe into a finite hypersphere

surface rather than an infinite flat hyperplane. Obviously I’m glossing over a lot of details

here. These scientists didn’t just measure the

amount of lensing on its own. They created a model that included all of

the relevant parameters – the expansion rate, details of inflation, the amount and behavior

of all different types of mass and energy, etc. They found the range of models that fit the

shape of the power spectrum, and for the most part those pointed to positive curvature. That curvature was slight – meaning the universe

is still unthinkably vast, but if this is right then it’s not infinitely large. The researchers claim a greater than 99% statistical

confidence for positive curvature in this analysis. So, is the universe really closed and finite? Does that mean there’s enough matter to

cause it to re-collapse again? And can we find a faster route to India by

traveling all the way around the cosmos to get back to where we started? Well even if the universe is finite, it’s

still expanding and that expansion is accelerating. It will NEVER recollapse unless its physics

is very different to what we think. Also, beyond a certain distance from us that

expansion exceeds the speed of light, so there’s no lapping the universe regardless of its

geometry. There’s also a reason to be cautious before

we conclude that the universe is closed at all The researchers looked at a different indicator

of the amount of gravitational lensing: the so-called four-point correlation function. In short – lensing by a cluster of galaxies

tends to draw rays of light from different blobs together. A random distribution of blobs ends up with slight

clusterings. The four-point correlation function found

an amount of lensing consistent with the old result of less energy density and a flat universe. So why is there a conflict given that 99+%

confidence? It’s important to know that this percentage

is NOT the likelihood of the conclusion being correct. It’s the statistical confidence in the model

fit given the assumptions that went into the model. In other words, IF all of those assumptions

are correct then there’s less than 1% chance that a flat universe would look like

a positively curved universe just due to random uncertainties. So, there are three possibilities really:

one is that the universe really is positively curved and finite. Two is that the assumptions that went into

the model are wrong. We’ll come back to these. Three is that there’s a mistake – an issue

with the data. Let’s talk about that. Some very subtle systematic issue in the calibration

of the Planck data may have led to the unexpected results for both the geometry and the expansion

history of the universe. For example, the Planck CMB map required extremely

careful subtraction of all other sources of microwave radiation. If this step, or something like it, wasn’t

done perfectly it could lead to bad results. The “official” analysis of the Planck data

was extremely careful so any mistake would have to be very subtle. The authors of the new study redid part of

the Planck analysis to claim this evidence of positive curvature – which the Planck team

had themselves decided wasn’t significant. So did the new guys do a better job and prove

everyone else wrong? That would be surprising because most data

points to a flat universe. If this lensing signal is real then maybe

there’s curvature, or maybe its an indication of some unknown physics. In the case of the discrepancy in the expansion

rate, hidden physics is the great hope of many physicists. That “missing physics” could turn out to

be the subtle clue needed to push our understanding of the universe to the next level. For example, if the expansion rate of the

universe really has evolved it may mean that the behavior of dark energy is changing – and

that could reveal the true nature of dark energy. In fact, if the universe really is curved

and closed, the discrepancy between the early universe and modern expansion rates becomes

even stronger. That’s because the previous calculations

of that discrepancy assumed a flat universe. So, physicists get even more excited if this

result holds up. OK, lots of ifs and buts – and that is okay,

because that’s how science works. We are very careful about how we talk about

confidence and proof. The new result opens a tantalizing new possibility,

and also hones in on the real physics of our universe – even if that means honing in on

any errors we’ve made in our analysis. The tension between the Planck results and

other cosmological measurements seems to be growing. The good news is that future missions will

surely resolve it. Perhaps identifying any errors, perhaps discovering

the nature of dark energy, and perhaps verifying the positively curved, finite geometry of

space time. If you want to dive deeply into understanding

the building blocks of space time then you need to study quantum theory. Brillaint.org has a fun course called quantum

objects that include interactive challenges and problems to solve. Honestly, the best way to wrap your head around

quantum theory is to play with it. In this course you can explore the experiments

of quantum mechanics and use them to construct equations of motion, laws of physics, and

systems of measurement based on the algebra of quantum theory. Effective learning is about problem solving. To learn more about Brilliant, go to brilliant.org/spacetime. OK, so in the last episode we explored the

scientific and philosophical implications of the anthropic principle. But before we get to that, I want to invite

you to check out the Space Time discord, which you can access with the lowest $2 patreon

tier. There are loads of people over there talking

about all sorts of fascinating smart-person stuff 24-7, as well as making suggestions

for the show – some of which we’re definitely going to do. Here’s a discord question from Damagast: do

all PhD physicists casually talk about complex stuff like on Space Time videos, or do most

employed physicists just shut up and calculate? Well, actually, both. I know plenty of physicsts who LOVE talking

about the most complex, speculative, and philosophical stuff over a beer, and some who are laser

focused on their own field and don’t really think far beyond it. That’s ok too, but I prefer beers with the

former. So let’s see what you had to say about the the last episode. Scott Barnkow asks what are some testable

predictions of the refined anthropic principle? Well, I’m glad you asked Scott because next week we’re going to tell you about a very clear one: Stephen Weinberg’s prediction of the cosmological

constant years before dark energy was ever discovered. Speaking of next week, Vladimir postulates

that if there are to be trillions or quadrillions of humans in future space-faring civilizations,

isn’t it weird that we happen to be in the first 100 billion? Well, nice way to invent the doomsday argument Vladimir… like 35 years after Brandon Carter first proposed it. And we’ll be digging into that next week also. And we’ll answer your question P.S.Y – what

exactly DOES Nick Bostrum mean by “reference class” – as in, how do you choose the sample

of observers from which you consider yourself randomly selected. In order to save ourselves from imminent doom

we may have to hope future generations are NOT in our reference class. Tune in next week. Penny Lane notes that anyone believing in

a Goldilocks universe clearly never experienced English weather. Well, besides being a witty quip, this gets to an

important point: anthropic seletion only demands that our universe be able to produce observers

who think about the nature of the universe. There’s no reason they need to be in any way

happy about the universe they observe. In fact I feel like horrible English-style

weather may be strongly selected for. It encourages us to sit inside and think about

the nature of the reality. Regis Bodnar has a great point: while it may

be technically possible to observe a typical universe, it’s perhaps impossible to define

one. So, let’s see. How do we define a typical universe? Well it would be one whose particular configuration of fundamental constants gives you a universe similar in some respect to

lots of other configurations of constants. Honestly, that’s probably some massively exponentially

accelerating universe because the cosmological constant in most universes seems likely to

be a lot higher than ours. So a typical universe is mostly empty Singapore Breaking News likes to play space

time loudly so mom thinks they’re getting more brainy but in the background is playing

games on steam. Well, jokes on you Singapore Breaking News – that is

a brainy trick, so you got smarter despite yourself.

Vladimir is a crazy pessimist and he makes me sad. Because his argument makes a lot of sense and it sounds very hard to disprove…

EDIT: Can't wait for next week. Try to give us some optimism on the topic, Matt 🙂

5:06 Earth is flst

No no no no no

and finally

No.

All of these calculations are wrong.

The Anthropic Principle would take us back

to the days of a flat earth,

where humanity ruled all,

and the whole universe revolved around us.

That is no more likely than that an infinite

number of infinite number of infinite possibilities

are born and die all at once, with each and every

tick of the clock.

As for a flat universe – it is absurd!

One cannot possibly hope to draw a single

straight line

anywhere –

And why?

Gravitational Lensing!and that being so,

one can never expect to find two parallel lines

that always and forever remain

equidistant.

Balderdash! Impossible!As for Dark Energy,

that is simply Karma.

Dark Karma.

Everything in the universe

expanding into isolation

is consistent with the growth of

corporate hegemony, information silos,

tea-buggery of the American public,

and the rise of Trumpistan itself.

It is Dark Karma, I say,

and nothing else.

We are doomed..

If the universe expands faster than light anyways, what use is it's curvature to us?

to leave, the stupid bastard children of Saturn and Zeus off our planet and the thick Venus of the sky. to leave the planet, to leave our souls. to be all gods, because that is our nature. all prayer in the universe. to hear us the degrees, the creator to hear us.

Dark energy is changing because you are studying it. The only way to keep dark energy from ripping the universe apart within a few millennia will be to never talk about it.

It's an SCP.

Universe mean philologically unus meaning and integer that can not be divided and versus that means rotated or converted all around that unus . Meaning all existing around. therefore is infinite because there are infinite points in any line and that there can not be multiverses because then the word lost its meaning. Now if you want to coin another word for the visible universe like uniseeble, go for it but do not push away the meaning of the things and pretend that doing that is the same to make science.

What if the universe has a closed curvature but expands faster than its curvature (at least for now)? This could even created universes inside a mega-universe!

Your Italian is spot on, tho. Your pronunciation is flawless.

.

how does an infinite universe expand?

There's one (well, at least !) thing I don't understand : why would a positive curvature necessarily mean a finite universe ? Couldn't it be like the 4D equivalent of an elliptic paraboloid ?

Of course its not finite–lol not possible.

Because The universe is a living being. If there is uncertainty principle in quantum physics, it has to be the principle of uncertainty in the universe as its symmetry. the largest and the smallest are similar

Seems to me like there is an unchecked assumption when linking positive curvature to a finite universe.

If the curvature is not spatially constant, it might be that the curvature is only positive in the local enormous volume.

Even if the curvature is spatially constant and positive, there is no guarantee that a straight line gets back to where it started. It's hard to imagine such a shape, but the topology seems sound to me.

An Infinite Universe..

An Infinite Multiverse..

So there are places in which reside more than 2 biological genders in an humanoid species. So their data is correct, just not in our world.

Multiculturalisim works!… Just not on our mother Earth. But somewhere else, Islam is a peaceful religion in a technological age.

And lobsters live in a peaceful orderly matriarchy, JUST NOT HERE.

they universe doesn't matter so much it's not like we will ever interact with most of it, and atoms lose their heat the further out they go. Eventually it’ll reach zero Kelvin. ＊brrrrr＊ Now that's cold.

Could the universe be like a donut? The surface is flat, but still is closed and finite.

What if the universe has the shape of a horn torus?

It's hard to imagine the universe being flat since so many things information the universe are spherical and when you look out at it it seems to be spherical as well. Maybe I'm confused as to what flat means for the universe

There is one more terrible possibility that you have forgotten. At the end of the lots of discussions and many scientific research, they will find out it is impossible to determine whether the universe is flat or curved

I made Hacked my PC’s hardrive , and made the capacity infinite. It Didn’t matter how much data you stored on it. It was always %1 full .

Will speed of light changes with change in curvature of space? Speed of light is constant and curved space have more distance between 2 points than a flat space.

Listen, Yall Physicists need to go back to school because my shitty kentucky education says fucking obviously its curved the Universe repeats itself at every scale, OBVIOUSLY its a Hypersphere, this information is like 5 years old news to me.

Bullshit.

"Beyond a certain distance from us, its expansion exceeds the speed of light". I don't really get that. Does that mean the universe is expanding at different rates in different places, and we just happen to be in a place where it's not expanding very fast? Or, is it that the further you go from the center, the faster it's expanding and we happen to be in the center (which I guess is pretty unlikely, if there even is a center to the universe)?

I love contradictory data. What a boring world it would be to know it all.

Me letting my imagination go wild:

We are a massive chain reaction in a moment of a bigger universe in which other universes like us exist with their own big bang and everything. It just happens that the scale is so high that we think it goes forever. It might just not be forever cuz it takes so much to change energy and matter into the elements we want unless the power of a massive star is so powerful that creates the elements we look for.

But thats just me and my crazy imagination ?

Love the video. Keep discovering!

Honestly the idea of the universe being flat is ridiculous, explosions don't go in one or two directions, you can see stars in every direction of the planet.

Sure it could be that it's relatively flat, but then you need to explain what is limiting it from expanding in all directions mostly evenly.

It's kinda preposterous that scientists would think the universe is flat.

So, God wasn't lying when He revealed to me that the universe was a finite sphere…

..in my dream.

Miss Universe, you have nice curves.

Is this meant to be news? As far as I knew we've known that the universe was finite for quite some time.

Finite, but unbounded.

3:16 Isn't that technically a 2-D projection of a 3-D projection of a 4-D hypersphere.

Hey you ? Yeah you! Close YouTube, put your phone on your dresser and go to sleep. This video will not help you sleep, it's 3AM…

Somebody needs to surpass this simple scenario, universe is round or flat or have a negative curvature, what about a complexity shaped universe and dinamic, not like a silent lake surface but more like a stormy sea full of wawe of different sizes.

We live in a Universe that invents itself after every quatrillions of years……

How can wormholes help in reaching your destination faster than light could if the universe has zero curvature? The shortest distance between any two points is always a straight line and in a geometrically flat universe nothing's preventing you from travelling in a straight line except for any obstacles in your path. Making it impossible to take a shortcut because you are already taking the shortest path, right??

No animals were hurt except for my brain, it is finite

Does flat necessarily mean infinite? I've read that a 4D torus would also appear flat, but is finite as going in any direction leads you eventually back around

infinitely smaller than infinitely big.. uhm…

Physics is always different than what we think. Scientists can be so short sighted sometimes… oo! We found an extra solar planet! Now we know there are other planets out there! (Duh) they really need to rely on common sense a bit more.

Michio Kaku would be very happy if this result hold up.

BTW it's proven now the universe is round and finite also we live in a 4 demontional sphere but the additional diamontions are still unknown 🙁

Is this guy the tall Peter Dinklage?

Was that a Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy intro?

I started learning about space with John Michael Gordier but after discovering PBS Spacetime my quantum physics soon surpassed JMGs channel. Recently I've been looking at a lot a quantum physics dank memes and I'm nearly beyond PBS Spacetime aswell.

Well after listening to the explanation that's some really misleading name.

Anyway it seems like the whole issue is proving whether the expanding universe means only that galaxies on average scatter apart from each other at some speed, or if the spacetime itself stretches as that would change the mentioned geometry from flat to something else.

define 'we'

A hypersphere in Minkowsky space? Would this imply into space not being spacelike somewhere? I can't wrap my head around a timelike tangential direction and the degenerate metric at the boundary.

Question:

Let's say you fall into a supermassive black hole, and an outside observer would see you approach it but never quite make it there. And then they wait until Hawking radiation eventually evaporates the black hole. What happens from your perspective then? Will the Hawking radiation catch up to you as you fall in?

guys… i am sorry as i am very interested in these topics, but, come on… the observatory tools are so laughably small compared to what we will have once we live in several solar systems, that… come on. Leave that question be. It doesnt matter for now what "answer" we might get.

measure this stuff with a telescope that has an apperture of 4 light years, then i will take these speculations serious…

Does this contradict eternal inflation? It seems to me that an inflating universe would have to be hyperbolic, given the massive expansion.

People that say data > People that say data

nothing wrong with english weather. rain is wonderful. wind is wonderful and the coldest it gets here is two degree celsius in winter. just put a coat on and you are fine. i dont even ever have to put the heating on. typically being an island, the maritime climate makes winters milder and summers milder. only in recent years climate change has affected the summer making it really really hot and the winters have been more mild than before. when i was a kid they went down to minus eight. but that was great as it meant snow fights. consider northern finland-they embrace the climate by having winter sports and sledging with dogs. rain means no drought. whereas lots of peoples live in places where its too hot and hardly any rain. so britain is a perfect goldlilocks climate and only idiots complain about it. i cant understand why people, especially paler skinned causasians who are physically adapted to live in colder climates of northern europes, want hot weather. in hot weather humans sweat more, because its too hot so the body is having to cool itself down. and we need to drink more fluids as we are losing fluid in the heat. there is risk of dehydration, heat exhaustion and sun stroke, as well as skin cancer. so only idiots want hot weather. the most optimal temperature for humans actually is room temperature-with is about fifteen-to seventeen degrees celsisu. loads of places in america are like hot and dont get enough rain. look at california at the moment ravished by bush fires. . and as a brit im perfectly adapted to colder weather and plenty of rain. rainy overcast days , hail and snow make me very happy, and thunderstorms too.

I prefer beer

Flat universe doesn't mean it is infinite

Secrets of the universe

0:20 … The Milky-way is already mindboggeling big. Heck, most people can't even wrap their heads around the size of our solar system.

I think we realy need a better map of the cmb and some other crucial data plus a better theoretical understanding of the universe to draw any more conclusions into this topic

DUMB QUESTION: WAS BIG BANG AN WHITEHOLE EXPANDING AFTER IT COMPLETES ITS CYCLE HAS AN BLACK HOLE??

So spacetime is an infinitely long 4d cilinder with 3 dimensions curling up (spatial) and 1 extending forerver (time)?

What if the scale at which we're looking at the universe can't see the curvature of the universe because the Delta is statistically indistinguishable from errors in measurement.

Question: Doesn't dark energy show that the universe is open/negative curvature? If two galaxies move parallel to each other, but are too distance for their mass to be attractive over dark energy, then the two galaxies will diverge. This is exactly in line with the definition of a universe with negative curvature.

But how can a finite universe expand, it is finite remember. If it expands, it is technically infinite because new space appears all the time

Supposedly the idea of multiple universes is not applicable for bubbled infinite universes. Because infinite universes do not have boundaries, so where does the next universe begin?

Question: in the calculations where the negative curvature of dark energy is calculated against the positive curvature of gravity, there seems to be a base assumption that if the universe lacked both, then it would have 0 curvature and be flat 'by default'. Is there justification for this assumption? Is a flat universe somehow more 'natural' then one where space has an intrinsic positive or negative curvature, before gravity or dark energy are introduced?

So for the universe to be flat and infinite it must contain exactly the correct amount of mass? If that were the case then surely we can't be in a flat universe. We're either in a very slightly curved closed universe or a very slight curved open universe, but we can't possibly be exactly balanced to infinitely many decimal places. What am I missing? It seems like the only way for the universe to be truly flat is if the balance of matter and dark energy is determined by some deeper principle to be exact, it can't just be an emergent property. Again, I clearly don't understand something.

I was interested to see that the diagram at 6:10 showed the energy paths shifting from blue to red.

Was this merely artistic licence or, perhaps, a Freudian desire to indicate an alternative cause of red shift?

it cant be infinite, but it has to be. it cant have started at some point, but it must have

I've always pictured the universe as a growing faster than light 4 dimensional sphere… a flat universe never made sense to me, this is fascinating.

if the universe is infinit, how does it expand?

Is the universe infinite? Please explain how it could stop with nothing (not even empty space) past the observable universe. Until you can literally explain that your thoughts are meaningless.

What a stupid video… Scientists and astrologists agreed that the change in star formations is caused from the universes expansion decades ago… In short yes the universe, in our eyes currently, is infinite because we don't even know where or when the universe begins and ends.

You know!… Back before Pluto was no longer considered a planet…

The universe is supposed to be all that exists, does that not mean therefore that it must be infinite and cosmology is studying only a domain within it. If it curves, what is a the centre of curvature? If it’s flat, what lays above and below? Is that not part of the universe too.

I've had this suspicion for a while, things are often times more simple in reality.

Hopefully we get to a point where we can create more space or spaces within space.

There’s only one explanation. The Universe is fucking with us.

Are they able to analyze cmbr photon polarity? Or change over time?

Why is my bullshit detector pegging out?

0:22 Wait? Why only every time I walk out the door? Why is the universe ambushing me like a bad teenage prankster with light that I can't even see?

If the universe is spherical in nature, you could never travel around to your start point.

Why is it so hard to comprehend that the universe can both be a perfect sphere, and because it’s expanding infinitely it is also flat. I.e. from any point in existence where an observer could view its own position relative to the infinite sphere it would appear to be infinitely flat. That is the nature of infinity. Therefore existence is both infinite sphere and infinitely flat.

Existence is a bead of light, relative in size, as tiny as it is infinite, and we are all inside. Careening through an endless bulk, in everything at all, falling in a perfect circle yet the straightest line of all.

My poem, found here

https://www.poems-and-quotes.com/poets/33552

Have we ever successfully used the gravitational lensing to resolve an image of our own galaxy? Would this be virtually improbable to capture and know with high confidence that the image is of our own galaxy?

Love the opening! One of my favorites ?

So is Planck's constant constant or not?

Question: If the overall curvature of the universe is determined by the amount of gravity generated by the energy, matter, antimatter, and dark matter within the universe (a constant), and the effect of Dark Energy in causing the expansion of space, how does the period of Inflation play into this? Surely during Inflation as Dark Energy was (briefly) so much more powerful then it is now, that should have caused far more negative curvature to spacetime then it did afterward. Thus if the values are perfectly balanced NOW, surely the universe overall must have had negative curvature during inflation.

This would seem to be an even greater problem if the theory proposed in this video's paper is true and the universe just barely has positive curvature, as the far greater negative curvature from inflation would probably have caused the universe to INITIALLY have negative curvature, and then when inflation ended somehow that curvature needs to snap into positive curvature, turning an infinite spacetime into a finite one.

One very important conclusion from the observational data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is that the CMB defines a cosmological frame of reference called the CMB rest frame. The home galaxy (Milky Way) is moving at a speed of around 552 km/s with respect to this rest frame and this has been measured from the anisotropy of the CMB radiation. From the velocity of the Milky Way galaxy we can identify a CMB rest point using Hubble's law and find that the Milky Way galaxy is located at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the CMB rest point.

Now when we consider the density of matter in the universe, then it is possible to show that this is consistent with there being an event horizon at a Schwarzschild radius of 8.77 billion light years at a time 13.8 billion years ago. The CMB is not an echo of a Big Bang but instead is radiation generated within the universe and turned back at this event horizon. All reasonable estimates of matter density lead to the predicted existence of this event horizon which should be detectable.

With this explanation in place the age of the universe is much greater than 13.8 billion years and the first galaxy formed an estimated 126 billion years ago.

https://www.academia.edu/5009126/The_evolution_of_the_universe

Richard

It's all an illusion: The apparent change in the size of the universe in 4D (y) is a function of the real change in size in 5D (x) using the space-time density ratio equation y=1/x^3. This is based on the spacetime density change ratio of the volume of a sphere using compressible space-time where real distance between objects is measured from a 5 dimensional space-time perspective while apparent distance between objects is measured from 4 dimensional space-time perspective. Thus, the universe is shrinking while it appears to be expanding and dark energy is an artifact of incomplete perception.

I'm not smart enough to follow this video casually listening to it while playing games

Matt: "…can we find a faster route to India by travelling all the way around the cosmos…?"

Columbus: "Doh!"

To me, the closed geometry supports the M-theory description of "bubble universes" that can connect through branes to fabricate a multiverse.

Ouruniverse might be closed/finite, but that doesn't put a limit on the number ofalternateclosed/finite universes according to multiverse theory. Of course, if you consider black holes to be "inside-out" universes themselves, they could bereflectionsof alternate universes and therefore indicate a limit to the number of alternate universes outside the cosmological event horizon.I like the fact that the true nature of dark energy is flowers… I've always thought that to be that case.

Do wormholes rely on flat universes? Or can that still exist with a spherical finite universe?

Even the Universe can’t escape the wrath of size queens. ?

What does Galactus stand on when he’s devouring worlds ??

I think the more logical theory about how the universe we live in is is the one I read on a 1990s book named Star Maker which says we live on the 3D "surface" (or projection) of a 4D "sphere".

The universe is built by allah swt, so it is measurable…. The size is how much Allah swt wants and he said in Quran that it is be created bigger than it was….

could it be a torus shaped universe, we are closer to the centre perceiving an acceleration

Did these scientists account for The Force, Harry Potter magic, and the existence of Middle Earth?

Our universe might be finite, but the Universe might not be finite…