“Interstellar” – Science Fiction or Pure Fantasy? | Space News

Welcome to Space News from
the Electric Universe, brought to you by The
Thunderbolts Project™ at Thunderbolts.info In November of this year, movie theaters
around the world will begin showing perhaps the year’s
most anticipated film. The science fiction
blockbuster “Interstellar”. The epic production is directed by
acclaimed filmmaker Christopher Nolan, Stars Academy Award winner
Matthew McConaughey and was made with a budget
in the hundreds of millions. The film’s plot involves scientists
attempting to find a new habitable system for human explorers after life on
Earth has become unsustainable. The means by which astronauts will attempt
to achieve interstellar exploration is by traversing through a
newly discovered wormhole. The film’s screenplay
is reportedly inspired by the works of theoretical
physicist Kip Thorne who is considered one of the
world’s leading experts on Einstein’s theory
of general relativity. Although Hollywood blockbusters
are not known for their realism, popular science media
have long suggested that wormholes are not merely
the stuff of science fiction. However, what exactly is
this hypothetical creature? We asked mathematician
Stephen J. Crothers for an historical perspective on the
origins of the Wormhole Theory. Stephen has gained international
attention for his critical analysis of black holes and
general relativity. And according to Stephen, the hypothetical
wormhole is a product, not of science fiction but of pure fantasy. According to the astrophysical scientists,
a wormhole is a tunnel-like connection between two different parts of the Universe
or between two different universes. It is claimed that wormholes
enable time travel, if one end of the wormhole is accelerated
and brought back to its starting position. Thus, the wormhole tunnel
is also a time tunnel! There are a variety of
wormholes alleged; some are unidirectional whilst
others are bidirectional. Generally speaking, it is said that the
unidirectional types are unstable, but the bidirectional
types are stabilized by the presence of what
is called exotic matter. This ‘exotic’ matter is not like
that of our everyday experience, not like ‘antimatter’, and not even like the ‘dark matter’
imagined by astrophysical magicians. Exotic matter is said to possess
negative energy density and large negative pressure,
or negative mass-energy. Wormholes not stabilized by exotic
matter are not two-way tunnels; only exotic matter
wormholes are traversable so that things can travel
either way through the tunnel. Traversable wormholes are, it seems,
bidirectional oral-rectal passages. In view of the latter there
might well be tapeholes which might be
stabilized by tapeworms. On the other hand, tapeworms
are not made of exotic matter, as we know from examination
of them in the laboratory, and so how they might stabilize a tapehole
is not yet understood by cosmologists. It seems that this is however a question that cosmologists are
investigating with much vigour. Exotic matter has all the
appearances of ghosts, yet some even suggest that exotic matter
is actually the elusive dark matter which sets astrophysical
scientists feverishly afire, despite other scientists claiming that
exotic matter is not dark matter. Like black holes, wormholes are
supposed to exist on scales from the microcosm on
up to the macrocosm. The microcosm wormholes, down
to 10⁻³¹ meters, it is said, can flash in and out of existence in
time of the order of 10⁻⁴³ seconds whereas the macrocosm manifestations
can last for a long time; at least long enough for things to go in
one end and be spat out the other end. Some Astrophysical scientists,
such as Maldacena and Susskind even claim that a wormhole is a quantum
entangled pair of black holes. Others assert that the
supermassive black hole supposedly lurking at the
center of any galaxy is most likely not a black
hole at all, but a wormhole. How is a wormhole
supposed to form? Well, like a black hole, it requires
gravitational collapse, unless it is primordial. A black hole has an
infinitely dense singularity, where spacetime is
infinitely curved. But in the case of a
wormhole, some say that collapsing matter produces the
wormhole oral-rectal cavity, reaches a very large but finite
density, and then rebounds (whatever that is
supposed to mean) to form another oral-rectal cavity
somewhere else in the universe, or synchronously with the same
process in another universe. On the other hand others still,
such as Misner, Thorne and Wheeler say that matter can be
entirely dispensed with so that only infinite spacetime
curvatures in geometry need to be considered for
the formation of a wormhole. This is done by first assuming that there
are two asymptotically flat universes, each having an infinite
spacetime curvature without anything to cause
the infinite curvature. According to Misner, Thorne and Wheeler in
Section 32.1 of their book titled ‘gravitation’, “The story that unfolded in the
previous chapter was fantastic! One began with the innocuous
looking Schwarzschild line element which was derived originally as the
external field of a static star. One asked what happens
if the star is absent, that is, one probed the nature
of the Schwarzschild geometry when no star is present
to generate it. One might have expected the geometry to be
that of a point mass sitting at r=0. But it was not. It turned out to represent a ‘wormhole’
connecting two asymptotically flat universes. Moreover, the
wormhole was dynamic. It was created by the ‘joining together’
of two ‘r=0’ singularities, one in each universe; it expanded to a maximum
circumference of 4πM; it then recontracted
and pinched off, leaving the two universes
disconnected once again, each with its own ‘r=0’ singularity.” Note that although they asked “what
happens if the star is absent” the mass M of a star still
figures in the expression for the circumference of the
throat of their wormhole. This is another case of
having and not having something simultaneously
and at the same place, of which proponents of black
holes and wormholes are so fond. And what did they say in their
previous chapter you asked? This: “Qualitatively speaking, the two asymptotically
flat universes begin disconnected, with each containing a singularity
of infinite curvature (r=0). As the two universes
evolve in time, their singularities join each other
and form a nonsingular bridge. The bridge enlarges, until it reaches a
maximum radius at the throat of r=2M (maximum circumference of 4πM;
maximum surface area of 16πM²). It then contracts and pinches
off, leaving the two universes disconnected and containing
singularities (r=0) once again. The formation, expansion, and collapse
of the bridge occurs so rapidly, that no particle or light
can pass across the bridge from the faraway region of one universe
to the faraway region of the other without getting caught and crushed
in the throat as it pinches off.” Apparently the wormhole Misner, Thorne
and Wheeler allege is not traversable, because it is fleeting, owing to the absence
of ‘exotic matter’ to stabilize it. In fact, according to them, there
is no matter present at all. They disinherit mass
from Hilbert’s spacetime and play only with the
mathematical singularity they had previously reified to generate
a black hole in the first place. This is also at odds with the claims for
matter being present at a wormhole, such as that by
Maldacena and Susskind that wormholes are two quantum
entangled black holes, since black holes are said to have
mass, and that Einstein’s gravity is spacetime curvature induced
by the presence of matter. But what is a
singularity you ask? It’s merely a place in an equation
where the equation is undefined, such as by a division by zero. Singularities have been reified
by astromathemagicians because they can’t tell the difference
between an equation and physical reality. For instance, you can go to a toy
store and buy a bag of marbles, but you can’t buy a bag of infinitely
dense centers of masses of marbles because the center of mass
is a mathematical artifice. Are you confused yet? If so, don’t worry, because, despite
appearances, so are the wormholers. Their tall tale has come to
us directly from fantasyland, with which they seem to have a
direct telephone connection. But there is a medicine at hand to remedy
the ailment, as we shall soon see. A Hollywood blockbuster
movie named ‘Interstellar’ is scheduled to be
released in November 2014. The plot involves saving the
Human Race from oblivion by sending some astronauts on a
fantastic voyage through a wormhole. It must be a traversable wormhole,
if they are to get back to tell tales of their adventures
and to save the Human Race. Just like the black hole, the wormhole is the
stuff science fiction movies are made of, and just like the black hole, the
wormhole is indeed only science fiction. It is not without irony that one of
the stars of the movie, Michael Cain, playing the part of a wormhole boffin,
tells one of the other stars of the movie, Matthew McConaughey, “trust me”. Apparently Cain’s character is
a professor of astrophysics. Wormholes, like black holes, are great
for selling science fiction movies to the impressionable tender minds of
children and an audience overcome by awe, diffidence, or both, but they have
nothing whatsoever to do with reality. Since the wormhole is supposed to involve
a black hole in some way or another, let’s first review the character of a black
hole to see if it makes any sense. The first thing of note is that a
black hole constitutes the universe because it is defined as being either
asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved. Since there is no bound on asymptotic for
otherwise it would not be asymptotic, the spacetime associated with a
black hole is spatially infinite. Proponents of black holes don’t
even know their own theory. For instance, Dr. Robin Barnard, a
post-doctoral astrophysical scientist at Harvard University has
asserted quite incorrectly, that the spacetime of
a black hole is tiny. However, without the asymptotic
condition no mathematical expression that can be misconstrued
as a black hole even obtains. This is illustrated by the
following figure for a black hole: Note that as the radial
distance increases indefinitely from the infinitely dense singularity,
where spacetime is infinitely curved, the spacetime of the black hole universe gets
closer and closer to some finite curvature (zero for flat,
non-zero for curved). The spacetime associated with the black
hole is obviously spatially infinite. This is a defining characteristic
of the black hole universe. The second thing of note is that
owing to the asymptotic condition there can’t be
multiple black holes. Consider this figure of just
two supposed black holes: Note that the spacetime of neither of these
black holes is asymptotically anything because the presence of the one destroys the asymptotic nature
of the spacetime of the other, thereby violating the very
definition of a black hole. In fact each black hole encounters
an infinitely curved spacetime at the singularity of the other. Now consider the
millions of black holes the astrophysical scientists claim
to have found all over the cosmos! That’s millions of infinite
spacetime curvatures encountering millions of
other spacetime curvatures, and so none are
asymptotically anything. The third thing of note is that according
to all proponents of black holes, black holes have and do not have an
escape velocity (or escape speed) simultaneously at the same
place (at the event horizon). Well that’s impossible too. No proponent of black holes even understands
the meaning of escape velocity. The fourth thing of note is that all
black hole universes are eternal, but no big bang
universe is eternal. The Astrophysical scientists tell us that
all big bang universes are of finite age, about 13.8 billion years. Thus, they insert an eternal black
hole universe inside a universe that is supposedly about
13.8 billion years old. That’s not possible. The fifth thing of note is that no
black hole universe is expanding; however all big bang
universes are expanding. The sixth thing of note is that all black
hole universes are spatially infinite but the three alleged
big bang universes are either spatially finite
or spatially infinite. The spatially infinite
black hole universe can’t fit inside the spatially
finite big bang universe. The two different spatially
infinite big bang universes either have a constant negative
curvature or a constant zero curvature. But no black hole universe possesses
such a constant curvature and so can’t fit into either of the
spatially infinite big bang universes. The seventh thing of note is that the Principle of Superposition
does not hold in General Relativity. For instance, let X be some black hole
universe and let Y be some big bang universe. Then the superposition X+Y
is not a universe. In fact, X and Y pertain to completely
different sets of Einstein’s field equations and therefore have nothing
whatsoever to do with one another. Now let X and Y be black
hole universes. Then X + Y is not a universe. Finally let X and Y
be big bang universes. Then X + Y is not a
universe either. Without having to resort to any
detailed mathematical equations describing a black hole
universe or a big bang universe it is clearly evident
that black hole universes and big bang universes
are mutually exclusive, and both are devoid of any
connection to reality. They are both products
of mysticism. It therefore does not look very
promising for the wormholes either, which we shall now investigate. The wormhole was first
conjured up by Albert Einstein and his colleague Nathan
Rosen, in a paper titled ‘The particle problem in the
general theory of relativity’, published in volume 48 of the journal
Physical Review on the 1st of July 1935. Some say that Einstein and Rosen discovered
the wormhole, but that’s not true, because they just made it up, with
some mathematical high jinks. There is actually a difference
between discovering something and making something
up ad arbitrium. The motivation for their paper was the
removal of what has since become known as the ‘event horizon’
of a black hole, pertaining to the solution to Einstein’s
field equations in the absence of matter. Indeed, according to
Einstein and Rosen: “The question with which we are
concerned can be put as follows: Is an atomistic theory of matter
and electricity conceivable which, while excluding singularities in the field,
makes use of no other field variables than those of the
gravitational field and those of the electromagnetic
field in the sense of Maxwell?” Einstein and Rosen called
their tunnel a ‘bridge’, so the wormhole is also known
as the Einstein-Rosen Bridge. Their construction does
not contain a black hole, and so there are none to
be quantum entangled. In fact, they use the form
of Schwarzschild’s solution, which also does not
contain a black hole. That which is usually called
‘Schwarzschild’s solution’ is not his, but a solution due to Hilbert, which is not equivalent to Schwarzschild’s
on account of two alleged singularities, where in both cases a
division by zero occurs, whereas Schwarzschild’s actual
solution has only one singularity, where a division by zero occurs. Here are two images of wormholes that
are freely available on the internet and typically used to
represent wormholes. The image on the left is a supposed wormhole
that connects two places in the same universe, whereas that on the right
connects two different universes. However these images do not reveal their
surreptitious mathematical construction. We shall therefore consider
the following two figures. The diagram on the Left represents a
black hole as we have already seen. Einstein and Rosen rejected
the existence of black holes and so the vertical line going off to the
singularity of infinite spacetime curvature was disregarded by them, since it does not manifest in Schwarzschild’s
solution, only in Hilbert’s solution. Recall that Einstein and Rosen utilized
Schwarzschild’s actual solution, not Hilbert’s. So the diagram on the right depicts the
starting place for their bridge construction. Einstein and Rosen
sought to remove the singularity at r=2m in their notation for the former Schwarzschild’s solution they used, as indicated in the diagram on the right. They simply set u²=r – 2m Then they said this: “As u varies from -∞ to +∞, r varies from
+∞ to 2m and then again from 2m to +∞. If one tries to interpret
the regular solution in the space of r, θ, ϕ, t, one arrives
at the following conclusion. The four-dimensional space is described
mathematically by two congruent parts or ‘sheets’ corresponding to
u>0 and u0 grows without bound,
r also grows without bound, as shown in the top part
of the left side diagram. However the diagram on the right shows that
as u → 0 from below 0, R → 2m from above 2m and as u>0 grows without bound not
only does r2 grow without bound, the result is a retracing of the lower right
diagram but in the opposite direction. So that it is only one spacetime
which is described twice. According to Einstein and
Rosen, their bridge: “represents a gravitational field …
which ends in a plane covered with mass and forming
a boundary of the space.” Thus, by their analytic
construction, Einstein and Rosen transform what is alleged to be a point
mass of the Schwarzschild solution into a plane mass of a wormhole. However, neither points nor planes have a
volume and so they cannot contain any mass. The Einstein-Rosen Bridge does not
connect two different universes, but different parts
of the one universe. According to Misner,
Thorne and Wheeler the two sheets derived from Schwarzschild
geometry for a wormhole between two universes are each asymptotically flat. Now all black hole universes,
as we have already seen, are by definition either asymptotically
flat or asymptotically curved. Schwarzschild spacetime
is asymptotically flat, and Hilbert’s spacetime too
is asymptotically flat. However, the mathematical expression
produced by Einstein and Rosen for their wormhole is not
asymptotically anything. This is easily seen by comparing
Schwarzschild’s solution in the form used by Einstein and Rosen
with their bridge construction. It is evident from these
mathematical expressions that as r grows without bound, the
coefficients of dt² and the r² approach 1 but as the magnitude of
u grows without bound, the coefficient of du²
does not go towards 1 but instead grows without bound. Consequently the Einstein-Rosen sheets
are not asymptotically anything, let alone asymptotically flat. Although mass is present in
the Einstein-Rosen Bridge, it is not present in the wormhole
of Misner, Thorne and Wheeler. The latter mean by the term
‘Schwarzschild geometry’ that which is obtained by means of the
so-called Kruskal-Szkeres coordinates, which they allege extends
Hilbert’s solution in such a way as to remove the singularity
at r=2m therein and produces a black hole. They say of their
Schwarzschild geometry that, “when appropriately truncated, it is
the spacetime geometry of a black hole and of a collapsing star –
as well as of a wormhole.” It is now plain that
the wormhole is nothing but a fantastic voyage into
magic and wishful thinking effected by high jinks with mathematical
expressions for black holes which in their turn have
no physical meaning. Nonetheless, in their paper Einstein
and Rosen extend their method to that of the Reissner-Nordström solution
which according to the cosmologists describes a charged,
non-rotating black hole. Once again they did not
accept the black hole and set to removing the
singularity they focused on by eliminating mass from the
Reissner-Nordström solution. From this they conjured up massless charges,
and made them the space in a wormhole. They said, “The neutral, as well as
the electrical, particle is a portion of space connecting
the two sheets (bridge). …It appears that the most natural
electrical particle in the theory is one without gravitating mass. One is therefore led,
according to this theory, to consider the electron or
proton as a two-bridge problem.” In other words, Einstein and Rosen claimed
that a wormhole constitutes a neutral mass and another wormhole independently
constitutes a charge, so that an electron or proton must be a
combination of at least two wormholes, one for mass and one for charge! It is this nonsense
they say makes their “atomistic theory of matter
and electricity conceivable.” Despite the mass and charge
wormholes of Einstein and Rosen, and the quantum entangled black
holes of Maldacena and Susskind, all generated from the nonsensical
black hole equations, in the movie “Interstellar”
astronauts travel through not an empty wormhole of the type
alleged by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, but a traversable wormhole sustained
by mysterious ‘exotic matter’. Wormholes, like black holes, are the
figment of irrational imagination and manipulations of physically
meaningless mathematical expressions. Hollywood will most likely make a lot of
money from their blockbuster wormholes, but science will secure by them nothing but more irrelevance and
detachment from reality. For continuous updates on Space
News from the Electric Universe, stay tuned to Thunderbolts.info