How to Terraform Mars

How will humans tame the Red Planet? Here’s one possible plan: The year is 2065 when the first colonists
are arriving on Mars. The average day fluctuates between
23°F and -95.6°F. To drive up the temperature, robots will turn fluorine found in rocks into perfluorinated compounds, or PFCs. Then it’s up to the sun to do its job and
warm the planet. Fast forward 50 years: Days on Mars are warmer, but still chilly, with highs reaching 41°F and lows getting down to 25°F. Carbon dioxide frozen in soil and ice caps
starts to release. Snowstorms and rain sweep the Martian plains. Microbes, small plants, and other life accustomed
to polar conditions, might be able to survive. 100 years after humans moved to Mars, days
are are warm and sunny. Temperatures are comfortable, between 75°F
and 45°F. The Red Planet has blue skies, thanks to its
now-thick atmosphere. Trees grow and thrive, feeding on the carbon
dioxide-rich air. Martian humans can go outside without spacesuits…
but they still need oxygen masks. It’s been 100,000 years since settlers landed
on the red planet. Mars has abundant trees and crops—
maybe even flowers. The plants have converted carbon dioxide
into breathable oxygen, and humans can safely traverse
a green-covered Mars.