Basics of the Human Movement System – Video #6 of Functional Anatomy 1: Intro to HMS


Let’s talk about, a little bit about each
major systems of the human body. Are you guys ready for this, how many of you guys have
heard of the fascial system before? How about connective tissue, you guys
heard about connective tissue? You got different types of tissue in the body;
muscle tissue, nervous tissue right, connective tissue. Connective tissue is a
type of tissue that helps bind everything together. So we got ligaments,
ligaments attach what to what? Ligaments attach bone to bone. How many of you guys
have heard of an ACL tear? A few right. Anybody from Chicago? You guys are hating ACL
tears right now. Derrick Rose kind of kind of cost you guys the finals, going
down with an ACL tear. ACL stands for what? Anterior cruciate ligament.
It’s a ligament which means it attaches what to what? Bone to bone. What two bones
is that attached to? Tibia and femur. So it’s stabilizing which joint? The knee.
You guys see how that works? All ligaments work that way, they connect
the bone to a bone stabilizing a joint. Tendons connect what to what? Muscles to
bones. For the most part muscles don’t attach directly to bones, they always
attach to a tendon which then inserts into a bone. What what muscles are those,
since I already have the tendon written up there. Everybody’s heard of their
Achilles tendon? Yeah gastroc and soleus connected to that huge Achilles tendon, very powerful muscles which connected to this bone, anybody know what this bone is
again? That’s your calcaneus, your heel bone. How
many of you guys have ever heard this term fascia? Good so fascia we usually when
we refer to fascia, although you could say that all connective tissue is a fascial
component right, like fascia just generally refers to sheets of connective
tissue. So sometimes, anybody planning on doing
cadaver study like you got to do it for school if you
go for DPT right, this right here, this white stuff is actually what you see
when you open up a cadaver. You don’t have bright red muscles like this, you
have fat, then you have all of this white connective tissue, and that white
connective tissue does serve a purpose. What’s a quality of connective tissue
that you guys are aware of? Weak stuff? It’s pretty strong stuff right.
Connective tissue, pretty strong, pretty hard.
Alright so connective tissue makes a great reinforcer, why would that part of
the human body need a lot of reinforcement? Protect the organs that’s,
I would say that’s important. Anybody else think that’s important? I like my
organs where they’re at. What else might, why else might that be an important part
to have some connective tissue? It has to do with a region of the body that gets hurt
quite often. Yeah there’s something about this connective tissue protecting the
spine, because in this area of the body what don’t we have that we have here? Bone, specifically ribs right. So your
ribs are a nice stable, stable support for your thoracic spine, however you get
to the lumbar spine which has even more weight to support , there’s no ribs. So
we’ll add a little connective tissue, some fascia. You also have a big piece of
fascia on your back, so that’s your abdominal fascia, that’s your thoracolumbar fascia. You
guys have seen this before right? Big pieces of connective tissue just adding
reinforcement, protection. Fascia also helps to transmit force, and also shapes
and supports. One of my favorite myths out there, if you do, oh what’s a good one,
what’s a good one, I need to think of a good one. Have you guys ever heard of like
exercises that shape muscles right. If I do this when I do my fly, I’m going to get a
nice shape to my pecs. There’s no like, this whole bodybuilding science right.
Can you shape a muscle, no you can’t shape a muscle. Fascia shapes muscles. You
guys they grow or shrink, that’s what muscles do, like that’s all
you got, you can’t shape them, it’s already determined by these guys. Does
that make sense? A lot of attention being given to fascia right now, we did not give
fasscia nearly enough attention up until very recent times. Alright the skeletal
system, and we already went through the skeletal system I don’t know why that’s
there, that should say the muscular system,
thank you typos. Alright so the muscular system. I’m about to
teach you everything you need to know about muscles, everything. Everything you
need to know comes down to these three rules. If you can get down these three
rules you can leave, you’re done, you don’t need any more anatomy classes, you
guys believe me? it’s almost true, it’s almost true. I’d prefer if you stayed
until what we’re going to like seven tonight right. 12?
Did you just say 12? She just said 12, we are here till midnight,
it is an Anatomy marathon. Alright start with the three rules though. This
is all muscles do, muscles only contract and relax, that’s it.
They don’t flex, what flexes? Joints flex, muscles contracts.
Muscles don’t tone up, you cool with that? None of these stupid toning exercises. How do
you look more toned, lose fat, build muscle, that’s it.
People give muscles way too much credit. Muscles are stupid, they contract and
relax that’s it. Muscles only work on joints they cross. You’re like duh right,
how many of you guys just went duh? Well this gets a little trickier. Alright
because you’re going to learn today that some muscles that you thought
crossed one joint maybe cross more than one joint right. How many guys, okay let’s
talk about the biceps brachii, how many you guys are familiar with your
biceps ,you walk around flexing your biceps. Not really sure why people flex
their biceps, does anybody know what the biggest muscle in the human body is? The
glutes, but you don’t see anybody going around going dude
hypertrophy training, I’m on top of it this year, doesn’t happen I don’t know
why. Anyway let’s go back to the biceps. So we got the biceps, the biceps cross
what joint? Elbow, how many of you guys also knew though, I see see some of you
already are on top of this, it also crosses the shoulder, which it might
contribute to some shoulder joint actions. It also crosses the radial ulnar
joint, which means it’s also going to contribute to what? We’re going to go
back over this guy’s, I’m jumping ahead a little bit but it contributes to this
too. So there’s a muscle that’s traditionally thought of in almost a
single joint fashion right, and most people are like biceps brachii duh it crosses the
elbow, I know the biceps brachii, but you really, did you really know the bicep brachii?
It also crosses the shoulder and the radioulnar joint, it’s a three
joint muscle. Then of course there’s a lot of myths that I could bust right now.
Alright all a muscle knows how to do is contract and relax, which means
there’s no such thing as an upper and lower part to most muscles; and that
includes, who am I about to talk about? There’s no such thing as lower abs, you
hear me. You don’t try to work your lower butt, you don’t try to work your lower
bicep, stop trying to pretend like there’s lower abs. This muscle is stupid,
you tell it to contract what is it going to do? Contract along its whole length.
What joints does it cross? The vertebrate, yeah we can call that the lumbar spine. I
mean there’s several joints but you get what I’m saying.
Crosses your trunk, does your rectus abdominus cross your hip? Not really, not
at all. The rectus abdominus does not cross your hip. So you’re going to do
this to work your abs? Dude right, you’re doing this? How many of you guys were
just just before I said that, you don’t have to admit to it because I know it’s
out there, I know there’s a lot of misinformation out there. How many of you
guys were doing this to work your lower abs, and then I just told you there’s no
such thing as lower abs and your abs don’t cross your hip, and you’re like…. That is so not cool, so not cool. How many
how many of you guys are there? A couple of you, yeah it’s cool.
There is another muscle down there, the only difference is there’s a muscle down
there that actually crosses what joint? My hip and it just so happens to lay
right in this area underneath your abs, we’ll talk about that later. Does that
make sense? You guys see how I broke down that logic though, it’s not my rectus
abdominis working. Muscles work best in the direction of their fibers, so this is
where you guys get to pick up all of your joint actions. This is where if you
can get this down, you never have to memorize another joint action as long as
you live. If you know what a muscle does which it contracts,
you know what joint the muscle crosses, and then you look at its fiber direction,
you should be able to tell me how it’s going to pull on that bone. Alright so
we talked about the PEC right, the PEC runs mostly in what plane? Transverse
plane. So you can create a little word box right, what are my transverse plane
joint actions. Name them, we’ll do this, we’ll do this. Alright so I’m going to take
you through PEC major right now, using this and show you guys don’t need to
memorize joint actions you just need a little logic. PEC major, PEC major crosses what joint? Shoulder so
I know I’m talking about shoulder joint actions right. We know most of the fibers
run in the what plane? So I’m going to make a little word box for myself, I’m
going to say okay transverse plane over here, what are my transverse plane joint
actions guys? Horizontal abduction and adduction; and you guys are missing some rotation,
what types of rotation? Internal and external. You guys see what I did here right. I
just made my life a little easier by going okay based on what Brent’s telling
me, I know my PEC major is a muscle, a stupid muscle that’s only going to
contract. I know what my PEC major is going to do, and when it contracts it’s
going to move my shoulder. Now I know my PEC works best in the direction of its
fibers because that’s rule number three, and mostly that direction is in what
plane? Transverse. Now I know my transverse plane joint actions are
horizontal abduction, horizontal adduction, internal rotation, and external
rotation. Now I just have to figure out which way my PEC major is going to pull
on my humerus and move my shoulder, so which way is it going to pull it? You
guys know this. This way, what was this way, what joint action is this? Horizontal
adduction right, check What about rotation, you think my pecs going to
cause internal rotation? It’s on the front of my body, attaches to the front
of my shoulder, so when it shortens which way is going to pull my arm? Oh like this,
so that’s internal rotation. It’s not too bad right. You guys want to take it up a
notch, let’s take it up one more notch, so let’s do the rest of the PEC, do all of
the fibers run in the same direction with the PEC? No, If I drew your clavicle
right, and your sternum, and then out here is your glenoid fossa, your shoulder
socket, and this is my humerus, you’ll start to notice that not all the
fibers go in the same direction. We’ve got fibers that run like this
right, so they have a definitely a different angle than all of these fibers,
and then some of the fibers come from the bottom of the sternum and go up like
this right. What do you think these guys might be able to help with? Definitely
yeah, definitely could pull in a diagonal, but they’re also going to be
able to assist, who are they running parallel to? Anybody know, what muscles
right here? Anterior delt, what does my anterior delt like to do? Flexion right.
Can you guys see how these fibers right here, on my clavicular head of
my PEC might assist a little bit with some shoulder flexion. Everybody do
shoulder flexion for me, let me take that back, start over.
Everybody feel right here, all right now do flexion. Can you feel those fibers of
your PEC contract and try to help out. I said muscles work best in the direction
of the fibers, but realize if that direction will assist with the joint
action, it’s going to. You got to think of kinesiology functional anatomy; it’s kind
of like when we talk about joint actions, it’s like a party and everybody’s
invited, anybody who can help is going to help that’s kind of how it works. What do
you guys think that these guys are going to do, how are they going to be able to
pull my arm? Maybe not extension that would probably
lengthen them a bit right. What’s going to happen when they shorten, these guys
right here. You got it you’re thinking through it, what is this,
what is this? Adduction yeah. So, you guys never watched like old school wrestling,
Hulk Hogan? Hulk Hogan used to like to flex, flex, Hogan used to like to contract
his pecs right, but he can’t contract them this way. Why not why can’t he
contract his pecs that way? Because his hands are in the way silly, like if your
hands are anyway you can’t see my giant pecs that I’ve been working on right. So
which way do i flex, contract. Which way do i contract? He does this right, has
anybody ever done like a cable like down crossover fly thing? Nobody’s done that
for their lower PEC. It’s not necessarily your lower PEC, but it is the
sternal head of your PEC, does that make sense?
So that’s it guys, you just did it. You just did your entire PEC. Did you have to
memorize anything? You can figure this stuff out. So now we can go ahead and
write, my PEC major to shoulder horizontal adduction, internal rotation. The clavicular head will assist with what, which fibers? These
fibers right here I said would assist with what? Flexion. So assist with flexion and my sternal head will assist with
what? I’m sorry yes yes sternal head yep, sternal head will assist with what? Assist with that adduction, good. You guys did it. How many of you guys feel ready to do
that to any muscle in the body? Alright that’s why you’re staying for
the next seven hours, truthfully this is what we’re going to do, and you guys I
think we’ll find if you go through this logic by the end of the day it won’t
matter, I’ll be able to show you pictures of muscles you’ve never seen before,
you’ll be able to tell me what they do. You guys got three rules of muscles, is
that in your sheets? If it’s not in your sheets why don’t you guys go ahead and
take a second to write it down, because this is one of those things that I
definitely teach over and over again and I think it’s been instrumental, not only
in helping other people learn but even myself, like I go back to these three
rules over and over and over and over again. So why don’t you guys take a
second to write down these three rules. The nervous system, anybody nervous about
the nervous system. Yeah the nervous system, what you should
know about the nervous system is it controls everything. That’s a picture of
what? Your brain, that is a picture of your brain, and if something goes wrong
there man you are in trouble, and realize a huge portion of your brain is
dedicated to what? Movement motion is ridiculously important,
ridiculously important. Even an expression, expression is nothing more
than motion of what? Yeah how facial muscles, even speech is motion. Just
getting from point A to point B, all motion. Alright, so you guys got a
central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system. Your central nervous
system is what controls not just your brain but your spinal cord. Your spinal
cord actually does like a certain level of thinking. Reflexes you guys have heard
of reflexes before right. Generally speaking are controlled by your spinal
cord, not your central nervous, not your brain. You guys know what the withdrawal reflex
is? If I put my hand on a hot stove, I do what? Which is shoulder extension, elbow
flexion, and wrist flexion right. You guys think I’m kidding but that’s a reflex to
go through those joint actions, that’s a series of muscles that are fired to go
through those those joint actions that never goes to the brain. Isn’t that weird. You touch a hot stove and I I don’t want any of you to experiment with this, but
the next time it happens to you, you touch something and you withdraw. Notice
this, you withdrew before you actually had the conscious thought that you were
in pain, isn’t that crazy.
It actually yeah, it actually takes more time for you to register the pain in
your brain than it does for your body to react to the heat, the excessive heat or
whatever it was that you touched. Alright right peripheral nervous system. Your
peripheral nervous system is like the highway system that carries all of this
information back and forth. You’ve heard of like efferent and afferent right, afferent comes in and efferent goes out. Alright so efferent nerve, how many of
you guys have heard of motor units? Few of you alright. So what is a motor unit, a few of you guys are heard it what is it? It’s a nerve and all of the muscle
fibers it innervates right, that’s a motor unit. So one nerve all of the
muscle fibers. Could it be one nerve and eight muscle fibers, sure that’d be one
motor unit. Could it be one nerve and a thousand muscle fibers, sure that’s still
one motor unit. It’s the fact that if you, if that unit gets the on signal they all
turn on. Now what’s important about that, anybody know what that relates to
functionally, practically? All right let me give you another rule
there’s something called the all-or-none principle. I kind of talked about it with
lower abs, but let’s talk about it in terms of muscle fibers in general. The
all-or-none principle basically states when you fire a muscle fiber it fires
all the way. Muscle fibers are on off, that’s it.
Which begs the question how do I control how much force I put out? You guys with
me. So give you an example, how much you guys think I can curl, be
generous otherwise we’re staying till seven. Good question,
twice, once we’ll say once once. He could do more than 80, I like you.
140 I wish, okay I really like you but that’s not true.
95 I definitely could do 95, maybe I could do like 120 once right like max,
max curl right, when I’m in shape just not often lately. But nonetheless let’s
say I can do sixty pounds in each arm, one one time max. All right so that’s all
of the muscle fibers in my arm, and I just told you that when a muscle fiber
fires they fire all. All of the muscle fibers fire all at the same time. So how
do I go about picking up this marker which obviously does not weigh 60 pounds,
with all of my muscle fibers turning on maximally, and not take this marker and
launch it through the ceiling. How do I control how much force I put into that
marker? Yes right, so it’s not so much that I get to control how much the motor
unit puts out, I get to control how many motor units I recruit, does that make
sense. So for my one rep max curl I’m recruiting as many motor units as I
possibly can in in a coordinated fashion to pick up this marker. Maybe it’s just
one or two motor units right, just enough to overcome the weight of my arm and
however many ounces this marker weighs. Alright so that’s part of like your whole
central nervous system thing, part of the control is understanding that it’s how
many motor units are recruited and how efficiently they’re recruited,
how effectively, how coordinated, all right. So keep in mind that your nervous
system is always receiving information continually, right through your receptors,
is organizing that information and then is trying to activate motor units to do
whatever you want it to do given the information that’s coming in. So even
when I picked up this marker there was something in my receptors, a certain
amount of stretch on the skin, a certain amount of pressure on the skin, certain
amount of stretch in the muscles they gave me an idea of how much it weighed.
My brain went okay I kind of get how much it’s weighed and I think I’ve lifted a
marker before, so I’m going to use that information too, and now it knows how many
motor units to activate so that I don’t throw it through the ceiling. Everybody’s
cool with that example, is everybody as fascinated as I am about this stuff?
Seriously come on, you guys look a little a little down,
we need a coffee break, no coffee breaks. Yes you need a coffee break. All right
let’s get to this slide here and then we’ll go for a little coffee break. All
right neuromuscular efficiency, I like I like this definition, I stole it from an
NASM. Anybody know who NASM is? The National Academy of Sports Medicine. I’m
faculty for the National Academy of Sports Medicine if you guys take any
courses in New York, you will see me again. But this definition is the ability
of the neuromuscular, this is neuromuscular efficiency now, which is
what we’re working for we want efficiency. We want everything to work
well. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, you guys have
heard these terms before antagonists, stabilizers, neutralizers to work
synergistically that’s together, to produce, reduce and dynamically
stabilize, that’s concentric, isometric and eccentric actions, the entire kinetic
chain, your whole bod,y in all three planes.
Now what that definition is trying to tell us is that we have more to think
about when we train than just how much can we lift, a lot more to think about.
Now, it all works together. How many of you guys, so let’s go to to page 7 let me
give you guys a second to try to fill this out. Just something I want you to
think about, so if you read these sentences fill in the blanks, like I said
it’s just something to think about now that we’ve gone through each of the
systems. Alright so the blank receives
information from the environment organizes that information and initiates
a motor program. The nervous system. Movement occurs when blank contract.
Muscles, muscles are the only thing that contract right. The muscle pulls on
tendon, how many you guys put bone? Some of you guys put bone didn’t you? No, oh
yeah well he had tendon in turn pulls on a bone. The bone moves is dictated by
the, joint type and structure. Joints are supported by ligaments. Now realize every
time you move this is happening. It’s kind of crazy to think about right. I
picked up that marker, I had information coming in about the weight of the marker,
the density of the marker, the shape of the marker. I used my brain to organize
that information, which then goes down and recruits a bunch of motor units,
muscle fibers; let’s say in this case it’s my biceps brachii, which pulls on my
biceps brachii tendon, which of course pulls on my radius, which then moves my
elbow which is supported by collateral ligaments on my medial and lateral side.
That happens every time I move, kind of crazy right. You want to like practice
your anatomy start thinking through that, every time you like just pick a new
motion and just go through it in your head, before you know it you’d be really
really good at your anatomy. Especially if you looked up the stuff you didn’t
know.