10 Fascinating Mysteries of Mars

For being one of the closest objects to us
celestially, we still know about as much about the planet Mars as we do the depths of the
ocean. Which is to say, not a lot. The things we’ve seen in pop culture about
Mars makes us conjure a red, dusty planet where Matt Damon grows poop potatoes. But there’s more to Mars than that. Mars is the second smallest planet in the
solar system (with only about 10 percent of Earth’s mass), yet Earth and Mars have about
the same amount of actual land. Mars also has the tallest mountain in the
entire known solar system. Mars’ largest moon, Phobos, will be torn
from the planet’s orbit one day, creating a ring that will last hundreds of millions
of years. Those are some really cool things that we
know about the planet. But there still remain many Martian mysteries
that we haven’t quite figured out yet. 10. Mars has two drastically different hemispheres The northern and southern hemispheres of Earth
may have different kinds of topography, but they’re relatively similar. Mars, on the other hand, has a much lower
and flatter northern hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere has an average elevation
that’s about 3 miles higher. That’s a pretty drastic difference, geologically
speaking, and no other planet we know of exhibits such a trait. Scientists once thought that a huge asteroid
could have crashed into the top half of Mars early in its life, making a much flatter northern
hemisphere. Later computer simulations rendered that theory
less than ideal, unless the asteroid only glanced against the planet. Like a big, rocky kiss that flattened part
of Mars. Newer theories suggest that the resulting
magma flow from such a cosmic punch would have inundated the southern hemisphere, creating
the resulting terrain elevation difference. 9. Mars has a lot of methane (usually produced
by living things) We humans normally come across a slight knowledge
of methane amounts from jokes about cow farts. And that’s part of it. Methane is a greenhouse gas that contributes
to the rising warmth of Earth. It’s trapped in our atmosphere and causes
the temperature of our planet to rise even more than carbon dioxide does. Mars, curiously, has a lot of methane too. But here’s the kicker: methane is usually
released by living things. At least for the most part. So why is a planet that we’ve never discovered
life on releasing a biosignature? Well, we don’t know yet. It could have been trapped under ice for ages,
or caused by a release from ancient microbes on the planet, or even from a freak chemical
reaction. We do know that a plume of methane was detected
by spacecraft in Mars’ orbit more than once, which is notable because the gas is finicky
to pick up, especially in such a thin atmosphere that the planet possesses. 8. Mars has signs of water, but it can’t be
from the surface The discovery of ice near the poles of Mars
sent ripples throughout the scientific community in 2008. If there’s ice, that means there’s water,
and if there’s water, that means there could be life, right? Well slow down there, Andretti, because there’s
a lot more going on here. Yes, there have been more and more spottings
of icy polar caps and frost-filled craters. And that’s really cool. But what if we told you there was a subterranean
lake of standing water on Mars? It shouldn’t be possible. Liquids at that depth from the surface should
have a temperature of -68 degrees Celsius. Orbiting satellites have yet to get a visual
on this “lake,” but that could be hard since, you know, it’s underground. And of course a portion of the science community
is using this to prove that life on Mars is an indisputable truth. It is pretty tempting, especially if you think
back to how and where we humans began. 7. Can we live on Mars? This one seems pretty straightforward. It would be a hard no, correct? At least with the technological capabilities
we have currently? And the atmosphere is way different than Earth’s,
so we couldn’t just walk around like we do in everyday life. Yet in direct defiance of all things holy
and sane, NASA is determined to get the ball rolling on human colonization of Mars. By 2030, they think they’ll get feet on
the red planet. Radiation is an obvious concern if we were
to ever set up shop there, so underground shelters would be a requisite. We can’t grow food in the soil. Like, at all. But, humans had to start from scratch here
on Earth, so we would likely at some point find a way to use Mars’ alien resources
to develop new methods of survival. There really isn’t a way to know how we
could fare on Mars, long-term, until the first people reach the planet. 6. Why did Mars totally change its climate? One billion years, in the grand scheme of
the universe, isn’t much at all. Four billion years ago, judging from the vast
veins of old waterbeds on Mars’ surface, water flowed all over the planet. Since we know that Mars is about four and
a half billion years old, science can say with some certainty that the red, dusty planet
we think of now actually used to be quite moist (ew). Then somewhere along the way in the next few
billion years, something happened. The atmosphere of Mars starting disappearing. The sun reached the next stages in the life
cycle of a star and became hotter. So how did the red planet continue to have
water in a place in the universe where the sun should have evaporated it all? Scientists have a pretty cool-sounding theory
that maybe Mars was in orbit much closer to the sun, closer to Venus, and then began trailing
behind like a C student, eventually ending up where it presently resides. It’s also about the best answer we currently
have, because we don’t even really know why Earth has water. 5. We don’t know much about Mars’ two moons For being as close as it is to Earth, we know
very little about Mars, and even less about Mars’ two weird moons, Phobos and Deimos. Some think they may have possibly been asteroids
that were snagged into orbit by Mars, but the problem with that theory is that the shapes
and angles of the moons don’t necessarily fit that scenario. More likely, something struck Mars, hard,
and flung the eventual moons out into orbit. While we’re in the realm of the weird, there
are some formations on Phobos that would give conspiracy theorists night sweats. There’s what seems to be a large rectangular
monolith on Phobos, standing over 90 meters tall. While it’s likely just an abnormal chunk
of Martian rock, it’s still pretty notable. 4. What caused the bright white light in a 2019
photo? When you are in charge of receiving photos
of Mars from a rover light years away, you might be taken aback when you see a picture
with a bright white spot where there shouldn’t be one. An image taken in June 2019 by the Curiosity
rover showed a weird white glow emanating in the distance behind some hills. Aliens were the immediate explanation by non-scientists,
as you would expect. But it was most likely a lens flare or a cosmic
ray, and NASA admittedly has captured tons of these things. The white anomaly doesn’t show up in pictures
taken immediately before or after the event, and the team that created the Curiosity’s
camera system says that they come across oodles of pictures with bright spots every week. Still, can they prove it was a lens flare? That seems exactly like something aliens would
say to throw us off. 3. What lines the dry ice pits at Mars’ poles? We mentioned before that the poles of Mars
contain some known deposits of ice, which means liquid, which means potential for life. We also know that near the southern pole is
a subglacial lake, the first known stable body of water we’ve found on the planet. What’s really interesting about those polar
caps is that nearby there are some pits of dry ice that are lined with … well, we don’t
really know. There is some kind of dust that lines these
gorgeous pits. They’re huge, some of them two hundred feet
across. There is a possibility that the dust they’re
lined with could be gold, but we still don’t know for sure. 2. How do Mars’ giant dust storms happen? The thin, brittle atmosphere on Mars is absolutely
perfect for some truly epic dust storms that can shoot particles at speeds of over 60 MPH
and, in some cases, cover the entire planet for weeks at a time. Thing is, those planetary-scale dust storms
still hold a lot of mystery in them. We think that they may be the largest dust
storms in the solar system, and since the planet is essentially a desert, it doesn’t
take much to get them rolling. And while science is pretty sure that sunshine
is the catalyst, they aren’t too sure how they get to become so massive. One theory thinks that the dust particles
are warmed by the sunlight, which then warm the thin atmosphere, causing more wind, and
thus capturing more particles in a repeating cycle. We, of course, still say aliens. 1. Did Earth life come from Mars? Bear with us here, because we’re about to
get weird. So, perhaps you’re already passingly familiar
with the basic theories of how life began: Big Bang, primordial ooze, etc. Well, early on in Earth’s history, the building
blocks of life were pretty much non-existent. Remember how we mentioned that early Mars
could have been a quintessential Goldilocks planet? What if the essentials for life came from
outer space, survived the trip on a meteorite, for example, and arrived on Earth and evolved
there? It’s something science is highly considering. It’s called panspermia, and it suggests
life arrived on our home planet in the form of spores. So basically, life may have arrived on Earth,
not started on Earth. The primordial soup version of life-building
holds some water, sure, but it’s that exact water that almost kills RNA (a fundamental
part of genetics) in its tracks. Minerals like boron and molybdenum give life
to RNA, and those were plentiful on Mars four billion years ago. So when we talk about aliens on Mars, we’re
probably just referring to our last universal common ancestor.